Introduction

The immune system is the defense system of the body. Without it, our bodies would suffer from illnesses indefinitely, devoid of any protection and we could easily die from minor illnesses. This sophisticated system of immunologic cells, such as macrophages, natural killer cells, T-helper cells, immunoglobulins, epithelium, cytokines, and other components together ensure that we can fight various disease conditions.


However, this same seemingly unerring protective system of our bodies can also cause us immense health problems if left to rampage through the body uncontrolled, such as is seen when cytokine storm – a huge surge in the concentration of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and other proteins – occurs in patients suffering from Covid-19 and other diseases involving inflammation. In such cases, this very useful defensive system of the body could easily become the cause of disease by damaging the parenchyma of vital organs and tissues.

What does the body do to strike a balance between stimulation of the immune system and controlling its excesses?

The answer is immunomodulation. It is a mechanism that allows the body to exert some innate immune regulatory effects. It gets the human body to fight but only against the disease conditions and not against itself, except when it is overwhelmed by severe disease conditions like Covid-19 in which case, the body would need external help in the form of immunomodulatory medications, a good example of which is Immuno-m®. This is a safe product made of natural, well-engineered ingredients that perform the roles of stimulation and regulation of the body’s defense system to near perfection. It is designed to act without the side effects that come with chemical immunological formulations.

What is an immunomodulator?

It is defined in practice as a drug that influences the body’s immune system by up-regulating or down-regulating the synthesis of antibodies in serum; activation or deactivation of various immunological cells like the macrophages and the natural killer cells, and by increasing or decreasing the synthesis of cytokines and other mediator proteins of inflammation, all via stimulation or suppression of the principal cells and components of the innate and acquired aspects of the body’s immune systems.


Immunostimulators are used to potentiate the immune reaction against infective agents, cancers, and primary and acquired immunodeficiency. On the other hand, immunosuppressors are prescribed when the aim is to decrease the response of the immune system against transplanted organs and to manage cases of autoimmune diseases like lupus, allergies, and pemphigus. 


As good as these drugs are available commercially, the chemical ones have significant side effects and this necessitates those natural variants are made to avert these unwanted effects. Therefore, organic products like the Immuno-m® which is a natural polypeptide milk fermented product was produced from various naturally occurring lactobacilli, polypeptides from yeast-fermented milk, chondroitin sulfate, cholecalciferol, colostrum, and oleic acid to fill the gap and provide a safe and viable treatment for stimulation of the immune system against diseases like Covid-19, heart diseases, and similar illnesses. It is equally useful for the suppression of the same immune system when it tends to overreact like in the cytokine storm syndrome associated with Covid-19.

Mechanisms of action of immunomodulators like Immuno-m®

By acting at various levels of the immune system, these preparations can either selectively stimulate or suppress certain groups and subgroups of the immune reaction cells like the natural killer cells, macrophages, T-helper cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, neutrophils, etc. Also, these drugs can cause myeloid and lymphoid cells to synthesize inflammatory mediators like the immunoglobulins and cytokines which happen to be the principal players in inflammatory reactions.
Natural products like Immuno-m® act via four pathways namely:

When there is an overreaction of these entities of the immune system, on the other hand, Immuno-m® also has the ability to down-regulate these inflammatory mediators, thus protecting the body from injuries.

Roles of pro-inflammatory macrophages (M1 variant) after activation by Immuno-m®

There are two variants of macrophages whose developments are controlled by the pervading microenvironment surrounding the monocyte during its differentiation and maturation phases. These two variants are the M1 and M2 macrophages also termed the pro-inflammatory macrophages and the anti-inflammatory macrophages respectively.

Pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages are principal immune regulatory cells that play important roles in both innate and adaptive immunity. Their innate immune role is mainly detection, phagocytosis, and digestion of disease-causing microbes. They also produce cytokines like TNF-α and other proteins which help to stimulate other component cells of the immune system.

In adaptive immunity, the macrophages are the antigen-presenting cells (APC) that present processed antigens (products of infective agents like lipopolysaccharides of gram-negative bacteria) to the T- helper and B-helper cells which in turn transform to produce cytokines that activate almost all other cells of the immune system, such as the B cells (produce antibodies that fight infecting agents), cytotoxic T cells (kill cells infected with pathogens), the macrophages themselves, as well as other effector cells.


There are two types of T-helper cells namely TH1 and TH2. The TH1 performs the role of stimulating cell-mediated immune response involving cytotoxic T cells and macrophages, and of producing cytokines like gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor β, and interleukin-2, while the TH2 cells’ main duty is to activate the B cells to make antibodies, while also acting to create IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, and IL-13.

There are CD4 proteins, expressed by these T helper cells which help them to recognize the MHC ІІ proteins usually expressed by the invading organisms. In patients with immune suppression like AIDS patients, this protein is lacking on the T-helper cells and so the cells are not able to get activated and so are unequipped to play their vital role of activating almost every other cell of the immune system.

So in essence, the macrophages are the vanguard of the innate immune response where they recognize, ‘eat’ and destroy infecting agents while producing cytokines that also stimulate other cells of the immune system. This same monocyte is also the main instigator of the adaptive immune response by affecting the activation of the T helper cells which then activate the other cells of the immune response including the memory cells which are crucial in recognizing future infections. Immuno-m®, by activating and controlling the activities of these macrophages, therefore, is vital for the treatment of patients suffering from inflammatory and infectious disease conditions like Covid-19 and heart diseases. There are other important immune cells though, like the natural killer cells which are also in the vanguard of innate immune response after being activated by macrophages at the instance of immunomodulators like the Immuno-m®.

The Natural Killer cells (NK cells)

These other crucial players in the innate immune response are recruited during infection/inflammation by the macrophages through two mechanisms: activation via soluble mediators like the IL-12, IL-18, and stimulation via cell-to-cell contact. These now activated lymphocytes then go to produce a quick response to a variety of pathogenic infections. They detect and destroy cells infected by viruses, cancer cells, and other types of diseased cells. These cells have inhibitory receptors that recognize the healthy body cells and spare them. However, they have stimulatory receptors that recognize the MHC II in invading and damaged cells and so move to destroy them.

In addition to simulating cells like the T-helper cells and the natural killer cells the macrophages also enhance the production of nitric oxide.

Nitric Oxide (NO)

When macrophages are activated by cytokines like IL-1, INF-ϒ, and TNF-α, or by microbial proteins like lipopolysaccharides, they join other tissues like the endothelium in producing NO. This gas is toxic to infectious organisms and also controls the actions, proliferation, and senescence of many immune and inflammatory cells including macrophages, T lymphocytes, antigen-presenting cells, natural killer cells, neutrophils, and mast cells.

In addition, the nitric oxide gas dilates blood vessels thus increasing blood supply and reducing blood pressure. This is particularly helpful to the patient with cardiovascular diseases like hypertension. Nitric oxide also positively influences angiogenesis and apoptosis of infected and damaged cells thereby protecting the body from the noxious effects of these dead and disintegrated cells and tissues.

How macrophages M2 (activated by the Immuno-m®) suppress excessive inflammation

The immunosuppressive macrophages enhance the resolution of inflammation after the offending microbe has been dealt with by phagocytizing apoptotic cells; pushing collagen deposition; organizing tissue structure, and secreting anti-inflammatory cytokines like IL-10. This cytokine is concerned with the suppression of macrophage activation in a negative feedback mechanism, and synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-18, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, and GM-CSF (granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factors). This cytokine also down-regulates the MHC II expressed on the surface of the infecting organism thus also helping to wind down the immune response since, without the histocompatibility complex, the immune cells won’t recognize the infecting agent.

What are the ingredients in Immuno-m® that help it control the actions of the pro-inflammatory macrophages and the anti-inflammatory macrophages?

Immuno-m® contains the following harmless natural ingredients: lactobacilli (L. animalis, L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. lactis, B. longum.); polypeptides from yeast-fermented milk; colostrum which contains the important lactoferrin; chondroitin sulfate; cholecalciferol; oleic acid from palm oil. All these are scientifically approved nutrient supplements and in the form of Immuno-m®, they are prepared using the best available technology to make a very bioavailable immunomodulatory medication.


Every component of the above-listed ingredient helps the body to fight diseases like Covid-19 by stimulating and activating the cells of the immune system like the macrophages and also by instigating their suppression when the immune reaction becomes excessive and prolonged such that they begin to harm the host cells.

Lactobacilli: help the immune system by producing hydrogen peroxide, bacteriocin, organic acids, and biosurfactants – all of which help the body to fight infectious organisms that invade the body by being toxic to the microbes or damaged host’s cells. Also, these probiotics help in the formation of mucus membranes which is also a vital part of innate immunity since the mucus membrane holds the other immune components together.

Yeast polypeptide from fermented milk: not only acts as a probiotic but also plays a part in glycemic control, appetite suppression, reducing lipogenesis, and cholesterol synthesis – the major cause of vasculopathy like atherosclerosis. In addition, they help colon integrity thereby playing anticancer and anti-inflammatory roles.

Lactoferrin, which is a part of the colostrum, performs an anti-microbial role by enhancing iron sequestration, therefore making them unavailable to infecting bacteria. It helps the innate immunity by both increasing and decreasing immune cell recruitment to centers of inflammation. Regarding the adaptive responses, it stimulates antigen-presenting cells, T and B cell maturation, IgG secretion, and immune control.
Other roles of lactoferrin include, instigation of gut epithelium proliferation and maturation, enzyme production, and decreased permeability, all geared towards making the gut lining impervious to infecting organisms.

Cholecalciferol combined with chondroitin sulfate and oleic acid: carries out the all-important function of macrophage activation with the resultant downstream effects of T-helper cell activation and by extension, almost every other cell of the immune response.

The Benefits of the Immuno-m®

Tumor reduction: the drug identifies and destroys tumor cells at the early stages, prevents possible occurrence/reoccurrence. This is achieved by suppressing oncogenes (STAT, BAX) and up-regulating tumor suppressor genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, and WTI).

Crohn’s disease: the medication resolves this inflammatory bowel disease via its ability to stimulate the activation of the anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages.

Dementia and other central nervous system disorders like ADHD, autism, and Alzheimer’s disease: it enhances new growth of cells, induces the formation of new synapses, helps to repair damage from stroke, and helps to resolve inflammation following meningitis and encephalitis.

Cardiovascular diseases: Immuno-m® helps to protect the heart and associated blood vessels via its anti-inflammatory function through the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines and activating NO
production.

Leaky gut syndrome: the inflammation which often underlies this syndrome is controlled via the activation of the M2 anti-inflammatory macrophages.

Aside from the above-mentioned disease conditions, there are many other disorders that could be successfully managed by exploiting the pro-inflammatory and inflammation-controlling properties of Immuno-m®.

Why You Should Choose Immuno-m®

• It optimizes the immune system to be able to put up a strong fight against infecting organisms
• It selectively activates specific aspects of the immune system that are crucial in the body’s response like the activation of TH1 or TH2 cells.
• It is specifically good for both acute and chronic inflammation.
• It has a sophisticated effect that corrects and accentuates the activities of the microbiome, immune and nervous systems.
• It is the safest and scientifically approved immunomodulator available at the moment with a high and almost unrivaled safety margin.

Dr. Emecheta Chinenye Callista, MD 
medical writer and journalist

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