The World Health Organization has reported two new deaths from monkeypox since its previous update on June 27. As a result, the total number of deaths since the beginning of the year has reached three, and the disease has spread to new areas (1).

According to the WHO, since the last report, the number of cases has increased by 77% and reached 6,027. It is noted that most of them are registered in the European region. However, all three deaths were recorded in Africa.

It turned out that although the disease is not new, we do not know much about it and we do not have a proven and effective treatment strategy. It is particularly frightening that the appearance of monkeypox “overlaid” the Covid pandemic when our body is already very weakened by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the immunological burden from a large number of vaccinations against it. Therefore, the main question that worries people now is – Are there any good strategies for preventing infection with this new virus?

What causes disease?

Until now, monkeypox was a rare disease caused by a virus of the genus Orthopoxvirus, which also includes the natural and cowpox viruses. Monkeypox is transmitted from rodents to humans or from human to human, but the disease got its name because it was first discovered in laboratory monkeys in 1958. In 1970, doctors recorded the first case of monkeypox in humans in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2).

The virus is mainly spread in West and Central Africa, but it occurs all over the continent, there have even been isolated cases in the USA, Israel, Great Britain, and Singapore.

What are the symptoms?

According to the clinical picture, monkeypox is a “lightened version” of the usual one. The main difference is that it causes swelling of the lymph nodes (3).

The incubation period of the disease — the time from the moment of infection to the manifestation of the first symptoms — is from 7 to 14 days.

The first symptoms are:

After a few days, a rash often develops. The rash starts as flat, red bumps, which can be painful. Those bumps turn into blisters, which fill with pus. Eventually, the blisters crust over and fall off — the whole process can last two to four weeks. You can also get sores in your mouth, vagina, or anus. The disease can last from 2 to 4 weeks.

Most people will recover from monkeypox without problems. However, complications can include secondary infections, pneumonia, sepsis (severe response to infection), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and eye infection resulting in loss of vision.

How the infection spreads

The virus is transmitted by inhaling large droplets of saliva during close face-to-face contact when interacting with the patient’s fluids or contaminated items (2). The virus enters the body through damage to the skin, as well as the mucous membranes of the eyes, mouth, or nose.

Experts do not yet undertake to claim that completely asymptomatic people spread monkeypox. Most likely, they become contagious when the corresponding symptoms appear, and even after a few days.

Previous studies have documented transmission through droplets exhaled through affected areas of the mouth to someone else, but this is rare. In other words, widespread spread by airborne droplets, i.e. infection of an entire subway car by one sick person, is extremely unlikely.

The disease spreads through intimate contact, so people who have such contact with several partners, especially new ones, are at the greatest risk. The more partners, the greater the risk, but again, this risk remains relatively low. A person can become infected by an animal through bites or scratches, as well as through the preparation of meat from the infected animal.

How to treat monkeypox?

Most people with monkeypox get better on their own without treatment, especially in the case of having a strong immune system and a full-fledged diet, provided with vitamins and trace elements, or taking them as supplements. Following diagnosis, your healthcare provider will monitor your condition and try to relieve your symptoms, prevent dehydration and give you antibiotics to treat secondary bacterial infections if they develop (4).

There’s currently not an approved antiviral treatment for monkeypox. Antiviral drugs may help, but they haven’t been studied as a treatment for monkeypox. Several investigational antivirals with activity against monkeypox are available, but only as part of a research study (4).

Also, a very popular is question does the smallpox vaccine protect against monkeypox? The answer is no,not unless the disease becomes much more widespread and severe. The fact is that the smallpox vaccine contains a live virus and provides only short-term protection against monkeypox. In addition, it can cause severe reactions in risk groups. Therefore, only a severe outbreak of the much deadlier monkeypox or a recurrence of smallpox can justify the use of the vaccine (5).

For now, there are two vaccines licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) available for preventing monkeypox infection – JYNNEOS (also known as Imvamune or Imvanex) and ACAM2000 (6).

However, these vaccines should not be used in people who have some acute or chronic health conditions, including a weakened immune system, skin conditions like atopic dermatitis/eczema, or pregnancy (5). Also, no data are available yet on the effectiveness of these vaccines in the current outbreak.

People also often ask if the risk of catching or getting serious symptoms from monkeypox is higher if they have COVID-19, or if they are suffering from long-COVID. This is a question that health professionals are currently trying to answer.  Currently, we don’t yet know whether having COVID-19 or post COVID-19 condition (long-COVID) makes you more vulnerable to monkeypox. More studies are needed on patients who have an infection with the virus that causes COVID-19 or post-COVID-19 condition and the monkeypox virus at the same time. But of course, the state of the immune system is a key factor.

How can you protect yourself and others against monkeypox?

According to a well-known American expert, common, but not special, precautions are necessary to combat the monkeypox virus. David J. Cennimo, assistant professor of medicine and pediatrics in the division of infectious diseases at Rutgers School of Medicine in New Jersey, believes that the precautions already recommended to prevent other diseases are sufficient to stop the spread of the disease (7).

Expert says that it is not enough to talk to a person next to you, to shake their hand, you need to have sufficiently long close contact with the discharge of this person, blood, or with some biological materials. This type of contact happens mainly in everyday life. Therefore, the rate of transmission of this infection is not as high as during Covid-19.

The disease rarely proceeds in a severe form, and the speed of its transmission is minimal, so the risks of epidemic spread for the world are also minimal.

Prevention depends on decreasing human contact with infected animals and limiting person-to-person spread (4). The best way to help prevent the spread of the monkeypox virus is to:

How to strengthen your organism to prevent and fight monkeypox?

It is understandable that first, we need to improve the condition of the immune system. Immuno-m® is a biogenic polypeptide lactic ferment for immune modulation (8). It is a novel therapeutic approach that can boost and regulate inflammatory processes. Immuno-m® is a scientifically approved nutrient supplement compounded for highly effective immune modulation created from natural ingredients (different lactobacilli compositions (L. animalis, L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. lactis, B. bifidum, B. longum, B. lactis), polypeptides from yeast-fermented milk, colostrum, chondroitin sulfate, cholecalciferol, and oleic acid from palm oil) according to the latest technology of German Development Company (9; 10; 11). Immuno-m® is highly effective:

The next step is to fulfil our organism with vitamins and nutrients that are crucial against viruses. Immuno Star® is an all-in-one capsule immune boost supplement that allows you to get the essential nutrients necessary for the immune system that is difficult to provide in sufficient quantities in the diet. It is natural support for antiviral defence and better health. In Immuno Star® select vitamins and minerals (Vitamin C, Vitamin D3 & Zinc) have been combined to give you the best defence against viruses (including Covid-19) (12; 13; 14). Together, these ingredients provide our body with powerful protection against viruses and other pathogens, oxidative stress (due to antioxidant capabilities), and help to regulate the immune response and the activity of the inflammatory process.

Taking dietary supplements NADH Original Instant Power® is one of the most optimal ways to increase the level of energy, which is lacking during monkeypox and Covid-19 too. NADH Original Instant Power® pronounced energizing effect is noted, associated, firstly, with an increase in the synthesis of ATP in each cell of the body and, secondly, with an increase in the content of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which raises mood, increases energy, sexual activity, concentration, memory (15; 16).

Different studies suggest NADH Original Instant Power® may help to:

And of course, our mental state is very important as far it has a straight influence on our immunity. So, keep calm, provide a healthy lifestyle, take the above-mentioned supplements and enjoy life!

References

  1. https://www.who.int/news-room/questions-and-answers/item/monkeypox?gclid=Cj0KCQjw8amWBhCYARIsADqZJoVXT2F88oN9HBhlJMh43EqXQNZAZfq4HqF63X70YCavuBsiLHorz08aAlMkEALw_wcB;
  2. Bunge EM, Hoet B, Chen L, Lienert F, Weidenthaler H, Baer LR, Steffen R. The changing epidemiology of human monkeypox-A potential threat? A systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2022 Feb 11;16(2):e0010141. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0010141. PMID: 35148313; PMCID: PMC8870502;
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK574519/;
  4. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/22371-monkeypox;
  5. Rizk JG, Lippi G, Henry BM, Forthal DN, Rizk Y. Prevention and Treatment of Monkeypox. Drugs. 2022 Jun 28;82(9):957–63. doi: 10.1007/s40265-022-01742-y. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35763248; PMCID: PMC9244487;
  6. https://www.cdc.gov/poxvirus/monkeypox/considerations-for-monkeypox-vaccination.html;
  7. https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-06-monkeypox-precautions-special-combat-virus.html;
  8. Arora, Shweta & Dev, Kapil & Agarwal, Beamon & Das, Pragnya & Syed, Mansoor. (2017). Macrophages: Their role, activation and polarization in pulmonary diseases. Immunobiology. 223. 10.1016/j.imbio.2017.11.001;
  9. F.Atzeni, P.Sarzi-Puttini. Tumor Necrosis Factor. Reference Module in Life Science. Brenner’s Encyclopedia of Genetics (Second Edition) 2013, Pages 229-231;
  10.  Philipp Eissmann. Natural Killer Cells. Imperial College, London, UK;
  11.  Luiking YC, Engelen MP, Deutz NE. Regulation of nitric oxide production in health and disease. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010;13(1):97-104. doi:10.1097/MCO.0b013e328332f99d;
  12.  Jafari D., Esmaeilzadeh A., Mohammadi-Kordkhayli M., Rezaei N. (2019) Vitamin C and the Immune System. In: Mahmoudi M., Rezaei N. (eds) Nutrition and Immunity. Springer, Cham;
  13.  Prietl, Barbara et al. “Vitamin D and immune function.” Nutrients vol. 5,7 2502-21. 5 Jul. 2013, doi:10.3390/nu5072502;
  14.  Wessels, Inga et al. “Zinc as a Gatekeeper of Immune Function.” Nutrients vol. 9,12 1286. 25 Nov. 2017, doi:10.3390/nu9121286;
  15.  Castro-Marrero J, Segundo MJ, Lacasa M, Martinez-Martinez A, Sentañes RS, Alegre-Martin J. Effect of Dietary Coenzyme Q10 Plus NADH Supplementation on Fatigue Perception and Health-Related Quality of Life in Individuals with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2021 Jul 30;13(8):2658. doi: 10.3390/nu13082658. PMID: 34444817; PMCID: PMC8399248;
  16.  Reibnegger G, Greilberger J, Juergens G. and Oettl K. The antioxidative capacity of ENADA®-NADH in humans. J. Tumor Marker Oncol. 2003; 18, 37-41.
Dr. Oksana Klymenko M.D., PhD, 
SNHS Dip. (Holistic Nutrition), Medical Doctor, Researcher in the fields 
of molecular physiology and pathophysiology, 
molecular biology, genetics, cell biology

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