Sleepless nights happen to all of us, which makes the next day a rather difficult endeavor. We’ve all experienced nights when we seemed to dream so vividly, that we felt we hadn’t rested even one bit. But what happens when we feel we have not slept, while we indeed did? This confusing condition is called paradoxical insomnia, also known as sleep state misperception.
Understanding paradoxical insomnia
Paradoxical insomnia is a condition that is categorized as a sleep disorder. As the name suggests, the paradox of this condition lies within the mismatch between reality and the feeling of reality, meaning that while objective measures, for example, actigraphy, record sleep and its stages throughout the night, an individual feels as if they have been up all night tossing and turning.
Due to the puzzling nature of the condition, it can severely affect an individual’s physical and mental well-being. In addition, the constant perception of sleep deprivation may lead to anxiety, stress, and a host of other health problems.
Sleep state misperception: a deceptive perception
At the heart of paradoxical insomnia is a phenomenon known as sleep state misperception. In essence, people who experience sleep state misperception misinterpret the quality and quantity of their sleep. The individual perception of their night rest is not aligned with recordings of objective measures, which indicate a long and normal sleep.
Normal sleep involves the cyclic exchange of different changes throughout the night, including light sleep, deep sleep, and REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. These cycles repeat several times since one cycle of stages lasts approximately 90 minutes. With each cycle, our REM sleep stage gets longer and longer.
It is very normal to have awakenings during the night (micro-awakenings) that you might not remember. However, in the case of paradoxical insomnia, individuals remain aware to a greater degree of their surroundings throughout the night and falsely believe they never truly slept.
Paradoxical sleep vs paradoxical insomnia
While paradoxical sleep and paradoxical insomnia sound very similar, they are actually very different.
Paradoxical sleep is a term that is used to describe REM sleep, which is the stage associated with vivid dreams and rapid eye movement. While the name still says paradoxical, there is nothing paradoxical about it; it’s part of a normal sleep cycle. Too little REM sleep may cause you to feel poorly rested.
Sleeping but not feeling like you’ve slept
Individuals with paradoxical insomnia have been shown to spend an adequate amount of time in various sleep stages, including REM sleep, just like everyone else. However, in reality, they feel as though they were awake throughout the night.
People who experience paradoxical insomnia might recall being awake, remember their surroundings, for example, streetlights outside flickering, wind coming through the window, hearing noises, or even remember what they were thinking about during the night.
They often claim to have spent hours tossing and turning in bed, even if they were asleep. This skewed perception can be maddening, leading to heightened stress and anxiety about sleep itself.
Causes of paradoxical insomnia
Paradoxical insomnia can manifest differently from person to person. It is recognized as a complex disorder, meaning that there is no single cause why some people perceive their sleep differently.
However, scientific literature indicates some of the most common causes of paradoxical insomnia:
- Hyperarousal. It can be caused by stress, and anxiety can lead to heightened awareness and a false belief that one has not slept.
- Biological factors. There are natural differences between people in their sleep duration and quality, as well as their brain chemistry and functional connectivity, and unfortunately, some individuals may have a natural predisposition to misperceive their sleep.
- Disruptions during the night. Noise and other distractions can lead to frequent awakenings and contribute to the perception of sleeplessness.
- Improper sleep hygiene. Light in the bedroom, as well as the use of stimulants such as caffeine, can negatively affect sleep and sometimes lead to paradoxical insomnia.
- Neuropsychological disorders. Depression, anxiety disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorders can affect sleep perception and exacerbate paradoxical insomnia.
Treatment for paradoxical insomnia
Living with a constant perception of lack of sleep can be extremely challenging. Luckily, there are strategies and interventions that can help manage paradoxical insomnia:
- Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I). This therapy has been shown to be a highly effective approach for managing sleep disorders, including paradoxical insomnia. It focuses on changing patterns of negative thoughts and behaviors that are associated with sleep and teaching healthier sleep habits.
- Maintaining proper sleep hygiene. It is vital to create a comfortable and safe sleep environment; for example, eliminating noise, reducing light, and adjusting bedroom temperature can improve sleep quality. It is recommended to limit or avoid stimulants such as caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol close to bedtime. Finally, establishing a consistent sleep routine, even on weekends, can help regulate sleep patterns and improve sleep perception.
- Managing stress and anxiety. Practices like meditation and deep breathing exercises can help reduce physical and psychological arousal, especially before bedtime, leading to improved sleep perception.
If you think you might have paradoxical insomnia it is important to consult with your general healthcare practitioner, who can refer you to a dedicated specialist and offer a proper treatment.
Paradoxical insomnia is a quite rare disorder that leaves individuals feeling as though they haven’t slept, despite objective evidence suggesting otherwise. Some of the most common causes are hyperarousal, biological factors, improper sleep hygiene, disruptions during the night, or neuropsychological disorders. However, by practicing good sleep hygiene, and seeking out professional guidance when needed, individuals who experience paradoxical insomnia, can take steps toward a better night’s rest and a healthier life.
- Sleep Medicine Reviews. Paradoxical insomnia and subjective-objective sleep discrepancy: A review.
- Sleep Medicine Reviews. The paradox of paradoxical insomnia: A theoretical review towards a unifying evidence-based definition.